OpenStack KVM User Guide
OpenStack is an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) platform that allows you to create and manage virtual environments. Chameleon provides an installation of OpenStack version 2015.1 (Kilo) using the KVM virtualization technology.
Since the KVM hypervisor is used on this cloud, any virtual machines you upload must be compatible with KVM.
This tutorial provide basic information about how to use the OpenStack web interface and provides some information specific to using OpenStack KVM on Chameleon.
Web Interface (Horizon)
An easy way to use OpenStack KVM on Chameleon is via the OpenStack web interface. You log into the web interface using your Chameleon username and password. If you change your Chameleon password in the portal, that change will propagate to the OpenStack KVM interface in about 5 minutes.
The initial log in page appears as:
After a successful log in, you will see the Overview page as shown below. This page provides a summary of your current and recent usage and provides links to various other pages. Most of the tasks you will perform are done via the menu on the lower left and will be described below. One thing to note is that on the left, your current project is displayed. If you have multiple Chameleon projects, you can change which of them is your current project. All of the information displayed and actions that you take apply to your current project. So in the screen shot below, the quota and usage apply to the current project you have selected and no information about your other projects is shown.
Managing Virtual Machine Instances
One of the main activities you’ll be performing in this web interface is the management of virtual machines, or instances. You do this via the Instances page that is reachable from the menu in the lower left of the Overview page. An example Instances page is shown below. For instances that you have running, you can click on the name of the instance to get more information about it and to access the VNC interface to the console. The dropdown menu to the left of the instance lets you perform a variety of tasks such as suspending, terminating, or rebooting the instance.
The Instances page also lets you create new virtual machines by using the ‘Launch Instance’ button in the upper-right. When you click this button, a dialog window pops up. In the first ‘Details’ tab, you select the ‘Instance Boot Source’ of the instance, which is either an ‘Image’, a ‘Snapshot’ (an image created from a running virtual machine), or a ‘Volume’ (a persistent virtual disk that can be attached to a virtual machine). If you select ‘Boot from image’, the Image Name dropdown presents a list of virtual machine images that we have provided, that other Chameleon users have uploaded and made public, or images that you have uploaded for yourself. If you select ‘Boot from snapshot’, the Instance Snapshot dropdown presents a list of virtual machine images that you have created from your running virtual machines.
On the Details tab, you also provide a name for this instance (to help you identify instances that you are running), and select the amount of resources (Flavor) to allocate to the instance. If you select different flavors from the Flavor dropdown, their characteristics are displayed on the right.
The next tab is ‘Access & Security’, where you select an SSH keypair that will be inserted into your virtual machine. These keypairs can be uploaded via the main ‘Access & Security’ section. You will need to select a keypair here to be able to access an instance created from one of the public images Chameleon provides. These images are not configured with a default root password and you will not be able to log in to them without configuring an SSH key.
Next is ‘Networking’, where you select which network should be associated with the instance. Click the + next to your your project’s private network (PROJECT_NAME-net), not ext-net.
Once you do this, you can Launch your instance and the Instances page will show progress as it starts.
If you would like to assign a public IP address to your VM, you can do that while it is booting up. Click on the dropdown under Actions and choose Associate Floating IP. Choose an IP from the IP Address menu and click Associate. If there are no addresses available, click the + and follow the prompts to add one.
OpenStack injects your SSH key into the VM and you can use the corresponding private SSH key to log in to the VM. You will need to use the public IP assigned to your VM to connect from outside of Chameleon, or connect through an existing instance that both a public and private IP.
Note that the images we provide do not allow SSH into the root account. For root access, SSH into the instance as user ‘cc’ and then use the sudo command to become root.
We have enabled auto-login for the cc user on the console of our supported images. This should aid in debugging if you are unable to reach the instane via ssh for some reason.
The instance list page shown above has an option ‘Create Snapshot’ that allows you to save a copy of the disk contents of a running virtual machine. This allows you to start new virtual machines in the future that are identical to this one and is an easy way to save any changes you make to a running virtual machine.
Firewall (Access Security)
Each project has control over their own firewall settings for their instances. At minimum you’ll probably want to allow SSH access so you can reach your instances.
To enable this traffic, you need to configure the security group used by your virtual machine. You can see a list of your security groups using the “Access & Security” link on the left.
To edit a security group, click on “Edit Rules”. This opens a page showing the existing rules in the security group.
Click on “Add Rule” and choose the SSH rule from the list, and click Add. Modifications are automatically propagated to the OpenStack cloud. Feel free to add other rules as necessary.
OpenStack REST Interfaces
The OpenStack REST Interfaces are supported on Chameleon over secure HTTP connections. You can download your OpenStack credentials file from the web interface via the “Access & Security” link in the left of any page and then click on the “API Access” link on the top.
You can then install the OpenStack command line clients following these instructions. If using pip, we recommend setting up a virtualenv.
The SSL certificate used by Chameleon is trusted by most operating systems, so you shouldn’t have to provide any extra options to OpenStack commands, i.e. “nova list” should work. If your command-line tool complains about the certificate, download the Mozilla CA bundle from the cURL website and run the OpenStack client tools with the –os-cacert cacert.pem arguments.
OpenStack KVM on Chameleon supports the EC2 interface for programmatic access. You can download your EC2 credentials from the web interface via the “Access & Security” link in the left of any page and then click on the “API Access” link on the top. You should see a ‘Download EC2 Credentials’ button on the top-right. Note that you have different EC2 credentials for each Chameleon project you participate in. If you are a member of multiple Chameleon projects, we request that you use the corresponding EC2 credentials when starting virtual machines for a project.
You can use the OpenStack command line clients to download data from and upload data to Chameleon clouds. Configure your environment by following the "OpenStack REST Interfaces" section above, then use the following commands:
- glance image-download to download images and snapshots from Glance
- glance image-create to upload images and snapshots to Glance
- cinder upload-to-image to convert a Cinder volume to a Glance image
- cinder create [--image-id <image-id>] [--image <image>] to create a Cinder volume from a Glance image