Configure and interact with resources (using the command line)
Create an instance with the nova client
You can launch instances via the Nova command line client, which can be installed in a virtualenv with
pip install python-novaclient. The Nova client is also already installed in the CC-CentOS7 image. To launch an instance inside a reservation, run:
nova boot --flavor baremetal --image CC-CentOS7 --key-name <key_name> --nic net-id=<sharednet1_id> --hint reservation=<reservation_id> my-advanced-instance
The ID of the sharednet1 network can be obtained using the
neutron net-list command or by looking it up in the dashboard via Network > Networks.
You can obtain the reservation ID via the web interface or by running
climate lease-show <lease_name>. Note that the reservation ID and the lease ID are different.
Run a shell script on boot
You might want to automatically execute some code after launching an instance, whether it is installing packages, changing configuration files, or running an application. OpenStack provides a mechanism called user data to pass information to instances. This information can be any data in any format, but if it is a shell script it will be automatically executed after boot by cloudinit. You can provide this shell script either via the web interface in the "Post-Creation" tab when launching an instance, or by providing a file to the nova command line using the
Customize the kernel
Before the February 2016 upgrade, support for kernel customizing on bare-metal was limited due to the fact that instances were always booting their kernel directly using PXE and a common kernel command line. This required uploading kernel and ramdisk files to the Glance image repository as well as updating or creating a new OS image using these artifacts.
However, it is now easy to customize the operating system kernel or modify the kernel command line. You now have the option of modifying the boot loader configuration (
/boot/grub2/grub.cfg on CentOS 7 images) to point it to a new kernel on the local disk, or specifying kernel parameters and then rebooting using this modified configuration.
To do this, you must be using a whole disk image rather than a partition image. Whole disk images contain their own kernel and ramdisk files and do not have kernel_id and ramdisk_id properties in the image repository, unlike partition images.
Snapshot an instance
All instances in Chameleon, whether KVM or bare-metal, are running off disk images. The content of these disk images can be snapshotted at any point in time, which allows you to save your work and launch new instances from updated images later.
While OpenStack KVM has built-in support for snapshotting in the Horizon web interface and via the command line, bare-metal instances require a more complex process. To make this process easier, we developed the cc-snapshot tool, which implements snapshotting a bare-metal instance from command line and uploads it to Glance, so that it can be immediately used to boot a new bare-metal instance. The snapshot images created with this tool are whole disk images.
For ease of use, cc-snapshot has been installed in all the appliances supported by the Chameleon project. If you would like to use it in a different setting, it can be downloaded and installed from its GitHub repository.
Once cc-snapshot is installed, to make a snapshot of a bare-metal instance, run the following command from inside the instance:
sudo cc-snapshot <snapshot_name>
You can verify that it has been uploaded to Glance by running the following command:
If you prefer to use a series of standard Unix commands, or are generally interested in more detail about image management, please refer to our image management guide.
Building and customizing Chameleon disk images
Chameleon supports several official disk images (CentOS, Ubuntu). The image creation process is leveraging the diskimage-builder software, which has enabled us to have images that work both on bare-metal and KVM clouds. The scripts used to generate images are public and can be accessed on GitHub:
Each repository has a README explaining how to generate the image, which is done via a single script invocation. If you need to perform customisation to one of these images, do not hesitate to fork the corresponding project!
Run virtual machines on bare hardware
For cloud computing and virtualization experiments, you might want to run virtual machines on bare hardware that you fully control rather than use the shared OpenStack KVM cloud. There are many different ways to configure networking for virtual machines. The configuration described below will enable you to connect your virtual machines to the Internet using a KVM public bridge which you must first configure manually on your host on the default network interface.
First, set up your environment for the OpenStack command line tools by following the instructions above. Install the Neutron client in a virtualenv with
pip install python-neutronclient. Then, for each virtual machine you want to run, request a Neutron port with
neutron port-create sharednet1. This should display, among other information:
- a fixed IP in the same private network as the physical nodes
- a MAC address
Finally, start your virtual machine while assigning it the MAC address provided by OpenStack. If your image is configured to use DHCP, the virtual machine should receive the allocated IP.
Neutron ports allocated this way are not automatically deleted, so please delete them after your experiment is over using the command line
neutron port-delete. You need to pass the ID of the ports, which you can find with
Schedule instances on specific physical nodes
If you have a reservation for multiple physical nodes, explicitly identified with their UUIDs, you might want to force an instance to be launched on a specific node rather than letting the scheduler select one. This can be done with the Nova command line using a scheduler hint:
nova boot --flavor baremetal --image CC-CentOS7 --key-name default --nic net-id=<sharednet1_id> --hint reservation=<reservation_id> --hint query='["=","$hypervisor_hostname", "<node_uuid>"]' <instance_name>
From within an instance, you can discover which node it is running on by executing
curl http://169.254.169.254/openstack/latest/vendor_data.json which will return a JSON dictionary describing site, cluster, and node.
In its default configuration, the bare metal deployment system used by Chameleon (OpenStack Ironic) is restricted to using a single shared network per site. The network configuration features available in the dashboard are not supported (Networks and Routers).
On CHI@UC, network layer 2 isolation is optionally available for compute nodes. See our Network Isolation for Bare Metal page for more details.
Consult the dedicated page if you would like to use the FPGAs available on Chameleon.
Now that you have created some resources, it is time to interact with them! You will find instructions to the next step by visiting the following link: